### Thinking Strategies for Learning Basic Facts

When students have a solid conceptual base of multiplication and division, they can then be presented with an array with all the addition/multiplication facts, OR build the array with the students, fact by fact.

__First discuss the reasons__and importance of committing the basic facts to memory.

- Multiplication Tables are a quick way of adding, ONLY if you have memorised the facts
- They are needed in all levels of mathematics learning and make maths EASY
- They are needed in everyday life; 4 Big Macs at $3.95

**Then use the array to:**

- help them organise the information in a way that is natural to them
- help them to see and understand the mathematical connections (commutative, Family of Facts)
- show them that there is a way to reason: (if I want 9 x 8; I could do 10 times 8 and take off 8; 5 times table is half of the ten times table)

__organising their thinking and seeing the relationships among the facts__prior to memorising them.

Present the students with a blank grid on which they can systematically complete as they learn the facts (a record of their progress)

Using the completed grid to teach strategies and eliminate what they know. ALTERNATIVELY, build an array using the following rules

- adding zero...zero added does not change the number
- adding one.... we get one more
- doubles... both addends the same
- doubles plus one or doubles minus one
- order of addends .... 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 (what is the same? different?)
- adding to ten
- families of facts
- etc

__Similarly with the ‘times’ tables:__

- Multiplying by zero…. we get zero
- Multiplying by one …..we get the number we started with
- Square numbers …… often the facts kids love to learn: 2x2, 3x3
- Multiplying by ten …… the digits in the number move one place to the left (
__please DO NOT teach them to add a zero it is mathematically incorrect)__

When using these thinking strategies talk to the students about

- ‘how come?
- Why?’

**Chanting, Singing, Flash cards.**if the emphasis is on memorising KNOWN Facts

- after the children understand the facts
- if they help children memorise basic facts!!

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